Yes, breastfeeding can cause or contribute to colic symptoms. Some fussy or colicky babies are 'cured' when mom switches to a formula. This tells us that the infant was probably not getting enough to eat, usually because of low milk supply or a latching issue. Either issue can lead to a sort of 'frantic feeder' baby where extra gas is guzzled in. This can lead to colic symptoms.
There are lots of professionals who specialise in these problems and it may be worth seeing someone. In the meantime, here are a few videos about latching and feeding positions. This article has more on increasing milk supply.
Best breastfeeding positions
Cloudmom offers the essential breastfeeding positions including the cradle hold and the football hold!
Deep latch technique
Lactation consultant, Corky Harvey, teaches you how to try and get that all important deep latch.